Microcephaly

Etiology

Congenital/Intrinsic

  • Familial (autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive)
  • Syndromes (trisomy 21/13/18)
  • Craniosynostosis
  • Small brain (neuronal migration defects, CP, anencephaly)

Acquired

  • Infection (TORCH, meningitis)
  • Maternal drugs (FASD, tobacco, illicit substances)
  • IUGR (symmetric – genetic, congenital anomalies, intrauterine infections, substance abuse, cigarette smoking and therapeutic irradiation)
  • CVA
  • Metabolic (maternal PKU)

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